Footnotes for Four tones and downtrend
- I would like
to express my gratitude to J. Etung and N. Martin for their help in
constructing the dataset and their willingness to participate in the
- This measurement
was taken as close as possible to the end of the utterance but avoiding
any possible tail-off effect. In a great many cases a
tail-off was observable as a very steep drop in F0 as phonation ceased,
i.e. in the last 15 ms or so of te utterance,
and was excluded from the measurement.
- Two sentences
originally felt by my assistant to consist entirely of T4 later proved
to have a T3 word in them. A second potential source of confounding
influence on the results involving T4 is discussed below.
- Despite being
restricted to the last 4080 ms of the utterance, this drop in
F0 cannot be attributed to a tail-off effect (cf. fn.
- Note, however,
that Clements study was not a controlled experiment, but one
based one a monologue. Neither is it clear precisely what is meant
by downdrift; the usage in Clements paper seems to subsume different
downtrends. It is therefore not immediately obvious
that what is referred to as downdrift in that paper is
comparable to declination in the present study.
- The inherent
or normal level of the tone is taken to be either the
F0 value of the tone as it occurs earlier in the sentence or, where
the structure of the sentences did not permit this comparison, the
F0 value of the tone at a comparable place in the like-tone
sentences. In cases where both comparisons were possible, there was
agreement between the two.